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Application of arch structure

steel arch structure

The arch structure is a form of structure with extremely reasonable force. Compared with the bending-shear structure system, the arch structure has the advantages of large span, high bearing capacity, thin section, and small deformation, so it is used in construction and saves more building materials. Since ancient times, the arch has played a dual role in architecture and structure. As far as the 24.5m Fabricius bridge built in 62 BC, as far as contemporary large-span public buildings and bridges with a span of several hundred meters, arch structures have been widely used in the development of space and structure. cutting edge.

In contemporary times, in addition to being an independent load-bearing structure, through the evolution and expansion of forms, arches are widely used in various spatial structural systems, in the form of auxiliary load-bearing components or edge components, and combined with other advanced structural systems. play an integral role in construction. The characteristics of the application of contemporary arches are mainly reflected in:

1)The span keeps growing. The advancement of science and technology has promoted the development of large-span buildings. The development of structural mechanics, the application of new building materials, the progress of manufacturing technology, the improvement of construction level… and other conditions have promoted the continuous increase of the span of the arch structure. Compared with the previous masonry structure, the arch increases the span of the building dozens of times.

2)Diversified forms. On the one hand, it is reflected in the diversified application of contemporary building materials. Different building materials give different images to the arch structure. On the other hand, the changes in the form of the arch structure itself, such as rotation, twist, inclination, different combinations of sequences, and changes in cross-sections, also endow the building with rich forms; from the single vertical arch in ancient times to today, derived Various forms used in bridges and buildings.

3)Comprehensive application of the structure. Arch structures are usually used in combination with other advanced structures, such as shell structures, suspension cable structures, membrane structures, etc., to complement each other, give full play to their respective advantages, improve the comprehensive performance of the structure, and enrich the architectural form at the same time.

arch steel structure

At present, the arch structure has become mature in terms of technical research such as structural construction, but there is little research on the analysis and application of its structural form by architects from the perspective of architectural modeling. The application of new technologies and materials has promoted the development of large-span spatial structures. The arch structure is relatively mature in technical aspects such as mechanical properties, technical indicators, and material application, and its comprehensive application with other structural forms also fully demonstrates the advantages of different structural systems. However, with the development of diverse application forms, ignoring the reasonable expression of structural forms in buildings has also led to the disconnection of force flow and beauty of arch structures. For example, the unreasonable inclination of load-bearing arch components in some long-span buildings has caused the structure to lose its original load-bearing capacity. The capacity of the building increases the cost of the building sharply; while other large-span buildings focus on the rationality of the structural force, they ignore the possibility that the structural form itself may bring to the architectural expression, resulting in the same structure of the same building without any characteristics. Architects lack research on the expression of structural forms in architecture. Incorrect or inflexible use of structural forms also limits the possibility of architectural form creation.

In addition, the development of large-span architectural technology and art is not completely synchronized. The development of the structural system, construction technology, and material technology of long-span buildings is often not synchronized, and the performance of new structural systems and building materials in buildings often lags behind their appearance; and other influences, showing diversified development and great changes; acting on architectural expression, it usually makes architectural expression diversify and non-linear development; therefore, the asynchronous development of various elements affecting architectural form and expression leads to a considerable part The structural forms of long-span buildings are not properly reflected in their shapes.