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With the continuous development of the construction industry, great changes have taken place in its environment, form, function, and service objects, and the importance of construction technology continues to increase. In the process of architectural design, new structures, new technologies, and materials provide designers with more possibilities. The expression of architectural technology in architectural design is mainly to give full play to the characteristics of new materials and new technologies to improve the practicability and aesthetics of the building.
In the process of expressing architectural structure, architectural design needs to realize the unity of shape and structure, and transform structural support into structural expression, so that the architectural shape has a better sense of lightness, elegance, and modern texture, and then becomes the main element of architectural expression. In the process of architectural design, the two most important elements are plastic art and mechanical logic. Different styles are mainly realized by different emphases. Architectural structure design not only needs to deal with the component modeling reasonably but also needs to pay attention to the mechanical logic of the structure so that the building can have a high artistic appeal.
With the continuous development of building structure technology, building structure has been transformed from pure support to expression. The representative of the steel structure technology in the architectural design is the Tokyo Cultural Information Center Hall, which makes the architectural structure an artistic expression. There are many forms of grids, and they have strong adaptability, which can create a variety of architectural forms and can be applied to different plane shapes. With the continuous improvement of the ecological and permeability requirements of buildings and the continuous development of building structure technology, the building grid structure system is also developing in the direction of simplification, and the metal rods begin to become exquisite and slender. Membrane structures are fabric structures that emerged in the mid-20th century and represented the emergence of a new way of building. Membrane structure building is a space shape with stress control formed by using different high-strength film materials and auxiliary structures. The membrane cable system formed by membrane structure and tension cable structure plays an important role in the development of the construction industry. In the early 1970s, the Teflon membrane material developed by scientists played an important role in the development and application of the tensile membrane structure.
The composition of this building membrane material is Tepron waterproof fabric, which has a light transmittance of 20%, and when the sun shines directly, there will be natural diffuse light inside the building. At night, the light inside the building will diffuse into the night sky through the membrane structure, thereby creating a dreamlike effect for the building. For landmark buildings in the city, the tensile membrane structure can be applied to the roof, such as the roof of the Oita Stadium, which can be opened so that it can be used all year round. The roof of the building is spherical so that it can move along the curved surface. A 25% light transmittance Teflon membrane structure is applied to the roof to get plenty of sunlight during the day. In order to ensure the proper direction of sunlight for the stadium, its roof is also opened towards the north-south axis.
When the architectural design expresses the material technology of the exterior wall, the characteristics of the material are fully exerted, and then new architectural shapes and functions are presented. With the continuous development of exterior wall material technology, great changes have taken place in wall construction technology, wall structure system and wall materials. With the continuous development of material technology, many new exterior wall materials have emerged, such as glass exterior walls, natural material exterior walls, and metal exterior walls. In addition, the function of the building exterior wall is no longer a simply wind and rain protection, but also can achieve more functions. The continuous development of exterior building materials relies on the diversification of modern architecture.
In the process of expressing the technical functions of building exterior wall materials, it is necessary to give full play to the multi-functionality of building exterior walls, including functions such as ventilation, heat storage, shading, and light transmission. By rational use of natural light sources, construction costs can be reduced, and it is also in line with the requirements of sustainable development, and the exterior walls are used to express internal activities.
In the process of expressing the technical modeling of building exterior wall materials, its important principles include spatial organization techniques, formal composition, and architectural composition. The architectural design composition not only needs to design the aesthetic sense of form, but also needs to explore the application of new technologies and new materials and establish an emotional dialogue between people and the outer wall. In the process of processing the facade of the building exterior, it is necessary to consider the facade components such as exposed equipment and building external hangings, so as to ensure the high visual integrity of the building facade and realize the integrated design of the building.
In the process of expressing glass technology for building exterior walls, in order to ensure the transparency of glass, it is necessary to ensure that it has a slender and lightweight glass-supporting structure and an exquisite glass-supporting frame. With the continuous development of glass application technology, an all-glass structure has also appeared, and the glass can carry a certain load. The famous Corning Glass Museum Conference Center, its architectural design has a strong sense of space and vision. For the application of exterior wall material technology, the front façade of this building is made of sheets of glass, which fully demonstrates the function of glass to blur the boundaries between indoors and outdoors. In order to ensure the transparency of the glass, the windows of this building use stainless steel as the mast support, which can not only make a good transition between indoors and outdoor but also can carry larger loads. With the continuous development of exterior wall material technology, some top industrial technologies have also been applied, such as intelligent glass curtain walls, which can automatically adjust the ventilation, shading, and thermal insulation equipment system of the curtain wall according to the changes of the surrounding natural environment. This not only reduces the consumption of non-renewable energy but also ensures the comfort of the indoor environment.
One of the materials that reflects the times in the design of building exterior walls is metal exterior wall materials. The development of science and technology makes the appearance of metal materials more and more exquisite. For example, the exterior wall of the Light Technology Building uses a polished metal surface material, which can form a seamless and smooth whole, thus reflecting the integration of the building exterior wall. With the continuous development of building exterior wall material technology, some lightweight industrial materials can be used, such as wire mesh, perforated aluminum plate, stainless steel and Teflon, etc.; some transparent materials, such as infrared reflective polycarbonate film, synthetic film, liquid crystal, etc. Display glass, etc.; there are also computer control technology, laser technology and lighting technology, etc., to integrate the building into the surrounding environment.
With the development of modern processing technology, traditional wood can also play a greater role. Wood can not only be used as an expression, but also as a structure, providing a broad space for the design of wooden buildings. In the process of use, production, and production, wood has little pollution to the environment, consumes fewer resources, and is easy to reproduce, so it has a relatively broad development prospect in the design of building exterior walls. The headquarters of McDonald’s is a famous example of the use of wood. The sunny side of the building covers the wooden scaffolding on the steel structure. The wood used is a high-temperature-treated Yunshan wood bonding sheet, which has good thermal insulation performance. Its outer wall is affixed with an M-shaped sign made of metal material, and its interior can be illuminated so that the light and shadow can be scattered on the wooden scaffolding, showing a better aesthetic sense.
In the process of modern architectural design, it is necessary to follow the ecological concept, and it is necessary to comprehensively consider climatic factors and environmental factors, and then design high-quality residential buildings. The expression of ecological technology in architectural design needs to follow the principles of ecological design. The goal is to ensure the comfort of people’s lives and to establish the design concept of sustainable development, ecology, and energy saving. On the basis of full research on the relationship between ecological environment, building site selection, etc., look for the aesthetics, economy, and ecology of the building. The architectural design needs to study the local climatic conditions, analyze the impact of climatic conditions on human comfort, and then take corresponding technical means to ensure that the design scheme has the best comfort. In the architectural design, according to the main requirements of the function, try to use some new materials and new technologies. In the process of building form design, the key to the energy-saving design is to strictly control the external surface area of the building shape. In the case of the same external surface area of the building, the reduction in the area of the envelope structure can reduce the cost of the building.
In the process of architectural design, it is necessary to ensure a reasonable orientation and volume to ensure that more natural light can be obtained indoors, thereby ensuring the comfort of the indoor environment. For the use of building materials, renewable materials and local materials should be used as much as possible to avoid the consumption of non-renewable materials; old building materials and components can be reused, and materials that generate waste and high energy cannot be used.
The raw earth building belongs to the ecological building, which has the advantages of high comfort, weather resistance, energy saving, land saving, etc., and can make full use of natural conditions to ensure the appropriate living space of the building. Earth buildings have good effects in protecting the ecological environment, utilizing raw soil materials, ventilation, and energy saving. Architectural design can draw some inspiration from it, and then form better regional buildings.
Bioclimatic architecture can effectively combine architecture with human comfort, location, and climate. In the process of architectural design, geography, climate, wind direction, sunshine, and other factors can be fully considered, so that the building environment, building function, and building form can achieve sustainable development. A good bioclimatic building has better bio-organic properties and can achieve self-regulation. The traditional building adjustment mainly relies on mechanical systems and electrical systems, and the operating cost of the building is relatively high. For example, Yasuda College in Tokyo, Japan, has two oval atriums inside, which can be naturally ventilated. When the weather is hot, the air will enter from the middle layer or the ground floor of the building, and the hot air will be discharged through natural rising, and there is a preheat recovery device on the top. Sunshade device.
Solar energy utilization buildings mainly use natural energy such as solar energy and wind energy in the process of building design. Passive solar buildings can effectively distribute, store and collect solar energy through the selection of building materials, the design of building structure and internal shape, and the orientation and layout of buildings. The heating system of active solar buildings mainly includes heat storage, a radiator, a fan pump and a solar heater. The internal structure of active solar buildings is relatively complex, so the construction cost is relatively high. A zero-energy building does not consume non-renewable energy, and all energy consumption inside it comes from solar energy. With the continuous development of new solar materials, new processes and new technologies, the utilization rate of solar energy is also increasing, which can well achieve the effect of improving comfort and energy saving. The NREL Solar Energy Research Center has developed a range of energy-saving technologies, including solar heat sinks, photosensitive curtains, and waste heat recovery systems. The solar heat absorber can transfer heat into the building, the photosensitive curtain can be automatically raised and lowered according to the light intensity, and the waste heat recovery system can recover the heat existing in the air.
Ecological high-tech buildings are high-tech buildings that are sustainable and can develop in harmony with the surrounding environment, which can maximize the protection of the natural environment. In the process of ecological high-tech building design, some high-tech means will be used, such as building construction measures, resource substitution technology, material synthesis technology, biological science technology, information technology, etc. comfort. For example, the metal dome of the Rihoro Tendo Stadium in Japan can be opened or closed. It has a huge opening in the southeast direction. When it is in the hot summer, the natural wind can enter the room through this opening. The shape of the indoor space and the structure of the dome can be improved. The effect of natural ventilation, and the use of natural light to the greatest extent, greatly reduces the energy consumption and ventilation demand of indoor mechanical cooling; when it is in the cold winter, the streamlined dome will lead away the dominant wind and prevent the cold air from affecting the indoor environment.
The smooth roof design uses a natural form of aerodynamics so that strong winter winds can also blow away the snow. In the process of ecological high-tech building design, it is necessary to actively use some advanced technical means, scientifically and reasonably configure the physical properties of the building, such as ventilation control, light control, and other functions, and make scientific and reasonable arrangements for the relationship between the building and the surrounding environment to ensure that The harmony between the building and the surrounding ecological environment. The intelligent ecological high-tech building can organically combine building functions and artificial intelligence technology and can control the air conditioning volume and switch of the smart shell according to the external climate form, such as changes in environmental factors such as wind, humidity, and temperature, so as to make the indoor space Become safer, energy-saving, efficient and comfortable, so that the building ecology has the function of self-regulation.
For example, for the new office building of London City Hall, through relevant verification and calculation in the architectural design process, the area of the building exposed to direct sunlight is minimized, thereby effectively reducing the internal heat loss in winter and the absorption of solar energy in summer, so that the utilization rate of energy can be improved. Great improvement. Through relevant calculations, the surface area of such a spherical building can be reduced by a quarter compared to a cuboid of the same volume, so that the energy utilization efficiency can be maximized; some passive or active shading devices are also used on the periphery of the building It can be seen that the design of this building reflects the potential of environmental protection and overall sustainability.
With the continuous improvement of people’s living standards, the requirements for architectural design are also rising. In the process of architectural design, it is necessary to consider the expression of building structure technology, the expression of building exterior wall material technology, and the expression of building ecological technology, fully analyze the building and the surrounding natural environment and use a lot of new materials and technologies. And new technology, constantly improve the comfort, ecology, and safety of buildings, and achieve sustainable development of architectural design.