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Architectural Design of Maintenance Hangar (Part 1)

Aircraft maintenance mainly refers to the maintenance and repair of the aircraft structure and its technical equipment, which is the basic guarantee for the safe execution of aircraft tasks and the key prerequisite for the stable development of the aerospace industry. The maintenance cost of the maintenance hangar is relatively high, how to reduce the cost of maintenance and maintenance of the hangar is a problem that all airlines and construction units are trying to solve. Among them, temperature influence, earthquake influence and corrosion influence are the three most common influencing factors. Exploring the maintenance hangar design methods under these three influence environments will help promote the continuous progress of the maintenance hangar architectural design theory in my country.

  1. Architectural design of maintenance hangar based on temperature conditions

The design work of the maintenance hangar is more difficult. It is not easy to establish a set of maintenance hangar architectural design solutions applicable to the whole world due to the different climatic conditions and different technical levels between regions. This requires local hangar construction units to carry out targeted design according to local climatic conditions and technical levels to ensure that the temperature adjustment function of the hangar can be well realized.

The temperature has a great influence on the architectural design direction of the maintenance hangar, which is specifically reflected in the loss of heating resources when the temperature is extremely low. For example, the north-south direction span of an airline hangar in Chicago is about 180m. The temperature in this place is very low in winter. Every time the hangar door is opened, it will cause a lot of heat loss, which shows that the structural design of the hangar door is not perfect. For this reason, the airline specially invited the architectural design unit to carry out the architectural design for the maintenance hangar. After the construction, the maintenance hangar has established an air circulation system with excellent performance, which avoids the problem of heat loss caused by the opening and closing of the hangar door. It not only guarantees the average temperature of the hangar, but also reduces the operation and maintenance costs of the airlines, and has achieved very significant results. At the same time, the architectural design unit redesigned the structure of the maintenance driveway and the hangar gate, and adjusted the specific shapes of these positions to ensure that the performance of the hangar will not be affected by temperature when the temperature changes. The design and modification of the hangar utilizes a direct-fired heating device and a large furnace. The power generated by the large furnace is used to generate a huge amount of heat in a short period of time, and the low-speed rotating fan is used to achieve circulation and heat dissipation. Moreover, when the weather is hot, the fan can also realize the cooling function of the hangar, and the temperature can be adjusted in both hot and cold environments. The insulation property of the maintenance hangar will affect its temperature regulation function, so all airlines have increased the design investment of the maintenance hangar in order to design a maintenance hangar with stronger insulation function. The winter temperature in Northeast my country is extremely low, and the cold environment requires airlines to build heating equipment for maintenance hangars. If my country can also adopt advanced temperature regulation mechanisms or thermal insulation designs, it will be able to effectively reduce the operation of maintenance hangars in Northeast my country. Cost, improve the architectural design level of my country’s maintenance hangar.

2.Architectural design of the maintenance hangar

(1) Floor Maintenance The significance of designing the floor in the hangar is to provide aircraft parking on the one hand, and to give construction workers and technicians a wider operating space on the other hand. In a standardized maintenance hangar, each aircraft position should be equipped with a corresponding pit to ensure uninterrupted supply of water, electricity and gas. And the pits in the maintenance hangars in different regions are also different. Taking the northern winter heating area as an example, the pits have a certain heating function. And on the basis of the above functions, in order to provide better services, the floor should also have basic functions such as surface anti-slip and anti-corrosion. For example, the four-bay warehouse in Beijing is equipped with a floor heating function, and more than 40% of the heat in the maintenance hangar comes from the floor. At the same time, in order to effectively reduce the impact of physical phenomena such as thermal expansion and contraction on the floor, Beijing Four-Bay Warehouse chose to cut the entire floor into ten pieces to minimize the probability of thermal expansion and contraction.

(2) In the embodiment of the enclosure wall, the paper-cutting of the enclosure wall of most of the large maintenance hangars has completed the transformation of replacing the heavy wall in the traditional architectural concept with light walls. This change of concept can not only effectively reduce the self-weight of the enclosure wall and ease the construction pressure of the construction personnel, but also the wall has excellent fire resistance, earthquake resistance and thermal insulation. Still taking the four-station hangar in Beijing as an example, the hangar hall is surrounded by 113,000 square meters of natural lighting glass meter walls, and 17,063 square meters of lightweight thermal insulation walls are fixed on the outside of reinforced concrete columns and steel columns. The inside and outside of the indoor side are equipped with horizontal force-bearing members of colored steel plates with a thickness of 1mm, and the interior is filled with rock wool insulation boards with a thickness of about 10cm. This new light-weight wall construction idea does not require additional keel support construction, and has the advantages of easy installation, energy saving and environmental protection. At the same time, this kind of wall is extremely light in weight, and its own weight is only 45kg/m. At the same time, this material has excellent thermal conductivity, which can effectively reduce the power consumption of the maintenance hangar while improving the insulation effect, so as to reduce costs and increase efficiency. economic goals. The lighting glass mentioned above belongs to the enclosure structure outside the hangar hall, and also uses reinforced concrete columns and steel columns as the vertical force components of the overall enclosure structure, while the horizontal force components are channel steel, and the skeleton is a new type Lightweight rectangular steel tube. The glass curtain wall not only has the advantages and characteristics of a high-quality enclosure structure, but also has excellent light transmittance, which can effectively beautify the environment of the hangar.

(3) Maintenance hangar doors and windows The design of doors and windows in the maintenance hangar and the selection of their materials are also crucial components of the overall architectural plan. There are a certain number and scale of manufacturing companies in the world that are capable of undertaking different needs for the design, manufacture and installation of doors and windows for maintenance hangars, but unfortunately, there are no institutions and companies that specialize in the manufacture of hangar doors in my country. There are a total of eight doors on the four ground rails of the four-station hangar in Beijing, with a height of 23.25m and a width of 38m, and the weight of each door can reach 100 tons. The self-weight of these gates does not have too much influence on its own movement. This is because the top of each gate is equipped with a guide wheel that can be connected with the corridor of the maintenance garage, and a gearless linear transmission device is installed at the bottom, which can not only Effectively improve the flexibility of gate movement, facilitate the entry and exit of aircraft, and reduce the workload of staff. At the same time, affected by the climate conditions in Beijing, ice-melting and drainage devices were installed on the ground rail of the four-stand hangar in Beijing, and each door was also equipped with a small safety evacuation door for the staff to enter and exit to maximize the The flexibility and stability of the door movement are guaranteed.